. databases sometimes offer a "how to cite" feature; they may be incorrect, so it's best to double-check your citations using resources listed on the left
. the library has style manuals for MLA, APA, Chicago, CBE, and more at the Reference desk
. NoodleBib produces a correct list of references ONLY if you enter all the information in the boxes with the correct capitalization with no typos or spelling errors; remember to use the "check for errors" button at the bottom of the last page
. it can be easier to prepare your list of works cited by doing citations of the same TYPE together; eg. do all the books, then all the database articles, then all the websites
The last page of your essay is where you need to list the sources you used to write your paper. Your professor will tell you what style to use; MLA and APA are the most popular. MLA (Modern Language Association) calls this list "Works Cited" and is used for most papers in the arts and humanities. The social sciences, education, and business tend to use APA style (American Psychological Association), and the list of sources is called "References." You may hear these lists also called bibliographies, but that term is no longer in use.
There are a few ways you can compose this list, as well as find out how to cite your sources within your paper:
- Purdue's Online Writing Lab (OWL) provides examples and explanations about MLA, APA, and other citation styles; here you will find how to create your references/works cited page, do in-text citations, and see sample papers that help you format your paper at a glance
- Diana Hacker's Research and Documentation Handbook is an excellent resource, covering research, writing, and of course citing!
- Use NoodleBib, a software program that helps you create your works cited page in MLA, APA, and Chicago style formats
|If you can't find the information you need in these above resources, or if you have found contradictory information, consult the print versions of the style manuals, which are located in a corner of the computer commons area (look for the yellow sign stating "style guides & software books."
NOTE: The updated MLA (7th ed.) includes the following major changes:
Titles are now italicized, and are no longer
- The medium of publication (Print, Web, Film, DVD, etc.).
is added to the citation for print, Internet, film, videorecordings, CDs, but NOT for articles retrieved from a database:
- Stokstad, Marilyn. Art History. Upper Saddle River: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2008. Print.
- McCash, June Hall. "The Role of Women in the Rise of the Vernacular." Comparative Literature 60.1 (2008): 145-57. Academic Search Premier 13 Aug. 2009. [notice that you don't need to include the URL, just the name of the database]
- When citing a webpage, include a URL only when you think a reader would need it in order to find the item cited or if your instructor requires it.
- All journal citations use an issue number, regardless of how they are paginated.
- Use abbreviations for Web publications when there is no publisher (N.p.), no date (n.d.), or no pagination (n.pag.) available.